Publications

Publications

2021

Hammett, J. F., Lavner, J. A., Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (2021). Intimate partner aggression and marital satisfaction: A cross-lagged panel analysis. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 36, NP1463-1481NP. [pdf]

Karney, B. R. (2021). Socioeconomic status and intimate relationships. Annual Review of Psychology, 72, 2.1 – 2.24. [pdf]

2020

Hammett, J.F., Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (2020). Adverse childhood experiences, stress, and intimate partner violence among newlywed couples living with low incomes.  Journal of Family Psychology, 34(4), 436-447. 

Du, H., Bradbury, T.N., Lavner, J.A., Meltzer, A.L., McNulty, J.K., Neff, L.A., & Karney, B.R. (2020). A comparison of Bayesian synthesis approaches for comparing two group means. Research Synthesis Methods, 11(1), 36-65. 

Karney, B.R., & Bradbury, T.N. (2020). Research on marital satisfaction and stability in the 2010s: Challenging conventional wisdom.  Journal of Marriage and Family, 82(1), 100-116. 

Bradbury, T. N., & Bodenmann, G. (2020). Interventions for couples. Annual review of clinical psychology16, 99-123. [pdf]

Nguyen, T. P., Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (2020). When poor communication does and does not matter: The moderating role of stress. Journal of Family Psychology, 34(6), 676–686.

2019

Lavner, J.A., Williamson, H.C., Karney, B.R., & Bradbury, T.N. (2019). Premarital parenthood and newlyweds’ marital trajectories.  Journal of Family Psychology, 34(3), 279–290.

Bradbury, T.N., & Karney, B.R. (2019). Intimate Relationships (Third Edition).  New York: W.W. Norton.

Williamson, H.C., Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (2019). Barriers and facilitators of relationship help-seeking among low-income couples.  Journal of Family Psychology, 33, 234-239. [pdf

Ross, J.M., Karney, B.R., Nguyen, T.P., & Bradbury, T.N. (2019). Communication that is maladaptive for middle-class couples is adaptive for socioeconomically disadvantaged couples.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 116, 582-597. [pdf

Ditzen, B., Germann, J., Meuwly, N., Bradbury, T.N., Bodenmann, J.G., & Heinrichs, M. (2019). Intimacy as related to cortisol reactivity and recovery in couples undergoing psychosocial stress.  Psychosomatic Medicine, 81, 16-25. [pdf]

Lavner, J.A., & Bradbury, T.N. (2019). Trajectories and maintenance in marriage and long-term committed relationships.  In D. Schoebi and B. Campos (Eds.), New directions in the psychology of close relationships (pp. 28-44). Routledge.

Lavner, J. A., & Bradbury, T. N. (2019). Marriage and committed partnerships. In B. Fiese, M. Celano, K. Deater-Deckard, E. N. Jouriles, & M. A. Whisman (Eds.), APA Handbook of Contemporary Family Psychology: Foundations, Methods, and Contemporary Issues Across the Lifespan (pp. 445–461). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

2018

Hammett, J.F., Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (2018). Longitudinal effects of increases and decreases in intimate partner aggression. Journal of Family Psychology, 32, 343-354. [pdf]

Williamson, H.C., Hammett, J.F., Ross, J.M., Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (2018). Premarital education and later relationship help-seeking.  Journal of Family Psychology, 32, 276-281. [pdf]

Hilpert, P., Xu, F., Milek, A., Atkins, D., Bodenmann, G., & Bradbury, T.N. (2018). Couples coping with stress: Between-person differences and within-person processes.  Journal of Family Psychology, 32, 366-374.

Karney, B.R., Bradbury, T.N., & Lavner, J.A. (2018). Supporting healthy relationships in low-income couples: Lessons learned and policy implications. Policy Insights from Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 5, 33-39. [pdf]

Kuhn, R., Bradbury, T.N., Nussbeck, F.N., Bodenmann, G. (2018). The power of listening: Lending an ear to the partner during dyadic coping conversations.  Journal of Family Psychology, 32, 762-772.

2017

Hammett, J.F., Lavner, J.A., Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (2017). Intimate partner aggression and marital satisfaction: A cross-lagged panel analysis. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 32, 1-19.

Kuhn, R., Milek, A., Meuwly, N., Bradbury, T.N., & Bodenmann, G. (2017). Zooming in: A microanalysis of couples’ dyadic coping conversations after experimentally-induced stress.  Journal of Family Psychology, 31, 1063-1073.

Nguyen, T. P., Williamson, H.C., Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (in press). Communication moderates effects of residential mobility on relationship quality among ethnically diverse couples. Journal of Family Psychology, 31, 753-764.

Meltzer, A.L., Makhanova, A., Hicks, L.L., French, J.E., McNulty, J.K., & Bradbury, T.N. (2017) Quantifying the sexual afterglow: The lingering benefits of sex and their implications for pair-bonded relationships. Psychological Science, 28, 587-598. [pdf]

Jackson, G.L., Krull, J.L., Bradbury, T.N., & Karney, B.R. (2017). Household income and trajectories of marital satisfaction in early marriage. Journal of Marriage and Family, 79, 690-674. [pdf]

Backes, S., Brandstätter, V., Kuster, M., Nussbeck, F.N., Bradbury, T.N., Bodenmann, G., & Sutter-Stickel, D. (2017). Who suffers from stress? Action-state orientation moderates the effect of external stress on relationship satisfaction. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 34, 894-914. [pdf]

Kuster, M., Backes, S., Brandstätter, V., Nussbeck, F.N., Bradbury, T.N., Sutter-Stickel, D., & Bodenmann, G. (2017). Approach-avoidance goals and relationship problems, communication of stress, and dyadic coping in couples. Motivation and Emotion, 41, 576-590. [pdf]

Nguyen, T.P., Williamson, H.C., & Bradbury, T.N. (2017). Redefining communication in couple relationships. In J. Fitzgerald (Ed.), Foundations for couples’ therapy: Research for the real world (pp. 61-70). New York: Routledge. 

Williamson, H. C., Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (2017). Educational interventions for unmarried couples living with low incomes: Benefit or burden?  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 85, 5-12. [pdf]

Nguyen, T. P., Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (2017). Childhood abuse and later marital outcomes: Do partner characteristics moderate the association? Journal of Family Psychology, Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/fam0000208 [pdf]

Lavner, J. A., Karney, B. R., Williamson, H. C., & Bradbury, T. N. (2017). Bidirectional associations between newlyweds’ marital satisfaction and marital problems over time. Family Process, 56, 869–882. [pdf]

2016

Williamson, H. C., Nguyen, T. P., Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T.N. (2016). Are problems that contribute to divorce present at the start of marriage, or do they emerge over time? Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 33, 1120-1134. [pdf]

Zemp, M., Bodenmann, G., Backes, S., Sutter-Stickel, D., & Bradbury, T. N. (2016). Positivity and negativity in interparental conflict: Implications for children. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 75, 167-173.

Lavner, J.A., & Bradbury, T.N. (2016).  Effective interventions for optimal relationships.  In C. R. Knee & H. T. Reis (Eds.), Positive approaches to optimal relationship development (pp. 281-303). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Lavner, J.A., & Bradbury, T.N. (2016).  Protecting relationships from stress.  Current Opinion in Psychology, 13, 11-14. [pdf]

Lavner, J. A., Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (2016). Does couples’ communication predict marital satisfaction, or does marital satisfaction predict communication? Journal of Marriage and Family, Advance online publication. DOI: 10.1111/jomf.12301 [pdf]

Jackson, G. L., Trail, T. E., Kennedy, D. P., Williamson, H. C., Bradbury, T. N., & Karney, B. R. (2016). The salience and severity of relationship problems among low-income couples. Journal of Family Psychology, 30, 2-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/fam0000158 [pdf]

Williamson, H. C., Altman, N., Hsueh, J., & Bradbury, T. N. (2016). Effects of relationship education on couple communication and satisfaction: A randomized controlled trial with low-income couples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84, 156-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000056 [pdf]

2015

Lavner, J. A., Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (2015). New directions for policies aimed at strengthening low-income couples. Behavioral Science & Policy, 1, 1-12. [pdf]

Schoebi, D., Ariela F. Pagani, A.F., Luginbuehl, T., & Bradbury, T. N. (2015). Committed to maintain: A brief measure of maintenance-oriented relationship commitment. Family Science, 6, 160-169.

Sullivan, K.T., Pasch, L.A., Lawrence, E., & Bradbury, T.N. (2015). Physical aggression, compromised social support, and 10-year marital outcomes: Testing a relational spillover model.  Journal of Family Psychology, 29, 931-937.

Bodenmann, G., Meuwly, N., Germann, J., Nussbeck, F. W., Heinrichs, M., & Bradbury, T. N. (2015). Effects of stress on the social support provided by men and women in intimate relationships. Psychological Science, 26, 1584-1594. DOI:10.1177/0956797615594616 [pdf]

Kuster, M., Bernecker, K., Backes, S., Brandstatter, V., Nussbeck, F.W., Bradbury, T.N., Martin, M., Sutter-Stickel, D., & Bodenmann, G. (2015). Avoidance orientation and the escalation of negative communication in intimate relationships.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109, 262-275.

Williamson, H. C., Rogge, R. D., Cobb, R. J., Johnson, M. D., Lawrence, E., & Bradbury, T. N. (2015). Risk Moderates the Outcome of Relationship Education: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83, 617-629. DOI: 10.1037/a0038621 [pdf]

Trombello, J., Schoebi, D., & Bradbury, T.N. (2015). Personal vulnerabilities and assortative mate selection among newlywed spouses.  Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 34, 529-553.

Falconier, M.K., Nussbeck, F., Bodenmann, G., Schneider, H., & Bradbury, T.N. (2015).  Stress from daily hassles in couples: Its effects on intra-dyadic stress, relationship satisfaction, and physical and psychological well-being. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 41, 221-235.

Johnson, M. D., & Bradbury, T. N. (2015). Contributions of social learning theory to the promotion of healthy relationships: Asset or liability? Journal of Family Theory & Review, 7 , 13-27. DOI:10.1111/jftr.12057 [pdf]

Kennedy, D. P., Jackson, G. L., Green, H. D., Bradbury, T. N. and Karney, B. R. (2015). The Analysis of Duocentric Social Networks: A Primer. Journal of Marriage and Family, 77, 295-311. DOI:10.1111/jomf.12151 [pdf]

Karney, B. R. (2015). Why marriages change over time. In M. Mikulincer, P. R. Shaver, J. A. Simpson, & J. F. Dovidio (Eds.), APA handbooks in psychology®. APA handbook of personality and social psychology, Vol. 3. Interpersonal relations (p. 557–579). American Psychological Association [pdf]

2014

Landis, M., Bodenmann, G., Bradbury, T. N., Brandstätter, V., Peter-Wight, M., Backes, S., Sutter-Stickel, D., & Nussbeck, F. W. (2014). Commitment and dyadic coping in long-term relationships. Journal of Gerontopsychology and Geriatric Psychiatry, 27, 139-149.

Lavner, J. A., Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (2014). Relationship Problems Over the Early Years of Marriage: Stability or Change?. Journal of Family Psychology, 28, 979-985. DOI:10.1037/a0037752 [pdf]

Jackson, G.L., Kennedy, D., Bradbury, T., & Karney, B. R. (2014). A Social Network Comparison of Low-Income Black and White Newlywed Couples. Journal of Marriage and Family, 76, 967-982. DOI:10.1111/jomf.12137 [pdf]

Bodenmann, G., Hilpert, P., Nussbeck, F., & Bradbury, T.N. (2014).  Enhancement of couples’ communication and dyadic coping by a self-directed approach: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82, 580-591.

Lavner, J. A., & Bradbury, T. N. (2014). Marital satisfaction change over newlywed years. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Quality of Life Research (pp. 3811–3815). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

Bradbury, T.N., & Karney, B.R. (2014). Love Me Slender: How Smart Couples Team up to Lose Weight, Exercise More, and Stay Healthy Together. New York: Simon & Schuster Touchstone.

Williamson, H. C., Trail, T. E., Bradbury, T. N., & Karney, B. R. (2014). Does premarital education decrease or increase couples’ later help-seeking? Journal of Family Psychology, 28, 112-117. DOI: 10.1037/a0034984 [pdf]

2013

Zissimopoulos, J. M., Karney, B. R., & Rauer, A. J. (2013). Marriage and economic well-being at older ages. Review of Economics of the Household, 1-35. doi: 10.1007/s11150-013-9205-x

Lavner, J.A., Karney, B.R., & Bradbury, T.N. (2013). Newlyweds’ optimistic forecasts of their marriage: For better or for worse?. Journal of Family Psychology, 27, 531-540. DOI:10.1037/a0033423 [pdf]

Rogge, R.D., Cobb, R.J., Lawrence, E., Johnson, M.D., & Bradbury, T.N. (2013). Is skills training necessary for the primary prevention of marital distress and dissolution? A 3-year experimental study of three interventions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 949-61. DOI: 10.1037/a0034209. [pdf]

Bradbury, T.N., & Karney, B.R. (2013).  Intimate Relationships (2e). New York: W.W. Norton.

Williamson, H.C., Karney, B.R., & Bradbury, T.N. (2013). Financial strain and stressful events predict newlywed’s negative communication independent of relationship satisfaction. Journal of Family Psychology, 27, 65-75. DOI:10.1037/a0031104 [pdf]

Williamson, H.C. Hannah, M.A., Lavner, J.A., Bradbury, T.N., & Karney, B.R. (2013). Discussion Topic and Observed Behavior in Couples’ Problem-Solving Conversations: Do Problem Severity and Topic Choice Matter? Journal of Family Psychology, 27, 330-335. DOI: 10.1037/a0031534 [pdf]

Klein, W., Izquierdo, C., & Bradbury, T.N. (2013).  Housework. In E. Ochs and T. Kremer-Sadlik (Eds.), Fast forward families: Home, work, and relationships in middle-class America (pp. 94-110).  Berkeley: University of California Press.

Hilpert, P., Bodenmann, G., Nussbeck, F., & Bradbury, T.N. (2013).  Predicting relationship satisfaction in distressed and non-distressed couples based on a stratified sample: A matter of conflict, positivity, or support?  Family Science, 4, 110-120. [pdf]

Meltzer, A. L., Novak, S. A., McNulty, J. K., Butler, E. A., & Karney, B. R. (2013). Marital satisfaction predicts weight gain in early marriage. Health Psychology, 32, 824-827. doi: 10.1037/a0031593

2012

Lavner, J. A., Bradbury, T. N., & Karney, B. R. (2012). Incremental change or initial differences? Testing two models of marital deterioration. Journal of Family Psychology, 26, 606-616. DOI: 10.1037/a0029052 [pdf]

Lavner, J.A., Karney, B.R., & Bradbury, T.N. (2012). Do cold feet warn of trouble ahead? Premarital uncertainty and four-year marital outcomes. Journal of Family Psychology, 26, 1012-1017. DOI: 10.1037/a0029912 [pdf]

Lavner, J.A., & Bradbury, T.N. (2012). Communication. In W. O’Donohue & J.E. Fisher (Eds.), Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Core Principles for Practice (pp. 325-351). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [pdf]

Karney, B.R., Loughran, D.S., & Pollard, M.S. (2012). Comparing marital status and divorce status in civilian and military populations. Journal of Family Issues, 33, 1572-1594. [pdf]

Donato, S., Iafrate, R., Bradbury, T.N., & Scabini, E.(2012). Acquiring dyadic coping: Parents and partners as models. Personal Relationships, 19, 386-400. [pdf]

Schoebi, D., Way, B.M., Karney, B.R., & Bradbury, T.N. (2012). Genetic moderation of sensitivity to positive and negative affect in marriage. Emotion, 12, 208-212. DOI: 10.1037/a0026067 [pdf]

Schoebi, D., Perrez, M., & Bradbury, T.N. (2012). Expectancy effects on marital interaction: Rejection sensitivity as a critical moderator. Journal of Family Psychology, 26, 709-718. DOI: 10.1037/a0029444; [pdf]

Schoebi, D., Karney, B.R., & Bradbury, T.N. (2012). Stability and change in the first 10 years of marriage: Does commitment confer benefits beyond the effects of satisfaction? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102,729-742. DOI:10.1037/a0026290; [pdf]

Maisel, N.C., & Karney, B.R. (2012). Socioeconomic status moderates associations among stressful events, mental health, and relationship satisfaction. Journal of Family Psychology, 26, 654-660. DOI: 10.1037/a0028901; [pdf]

Meltzer, A.L., McNulty, J.K., & Karney, B.R. (2012). Social support and weight maintenance in marriage: The interactive effects of support seeking, support provision, and gender. Journal of Family Psychology, 26, 678-687. DOI: 10.1037/a0029364 [pdf]

Trail, T. E., & Karney, B. R. (2012). What’s (not) wrong with low-income marriages. Journal of Marriage and Family, 74, 413-427. DOI:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2012.00977.x [pdf]

Williamson, H. C., Ju, X., Bradbury, T. N., Karney, B. R., Fang, X., Liu, X. (2012). Communication behavior and relationship satisfaction among American and Chinese newlywed couples. Journal of Family Psychology, 26, 308-315. DOI: 10.1037/a0027752 [pdf]

Lavner, J. A., & Bradbury, T. N. (2012). Why do even satisfied newlyweds eventually go on to divorce? Journal of Family Psychology, 26, 1-10. DOI: 10.1037/a0025966 [pdf]

Bradbury, T. N., & Lavner, J. A. (2012). How can we improve preventive and educational interventions for intimate relationships? Behavior Therapy, 43, 113-122. DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2011.02.008 [pdf]

Finkel, E. J., Eastwick, P. W., Karney, B. R., Reis, H. T., & Sprecher, S. (2012). Online dating: A critical analysis from the perspective of psychological science. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 13, 3-66. [pdf]

Trail, T. E., Goff, P. A., Bradbury, T. N., Karney, B. R. (2012). The costs of racism for marriage: How racial discrimination hurts, and ethnic identity protects, newlywed marriages among Latinos. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 454-465. DOI: 10.1177/0146167211429450 [pdf]

2011 & Earlier

Maisel, N. C., Rauer, A. J., Marshall, G. N., & Karney, B. R. (2011).  Predicting support from an intimate partner after a traumatic injury. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42, 2044-2075.

Williamson, H. C., Bradbury, T. N., Trail, T. E., & Karney, B. R. (2011). Factor analysis of the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales. Journal of Family Psychology, 25 , 993-999. DOI: 10.1037/a0025903 [pdf]

O’Mara, E., McNulty, J. K., & Karney, B. R. (2011). Positively biased appraisals in everyday life: When do they benefit mental health and when do they harm it? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 415-432. [pdf]

Meltzer, A. L., McNulty, J. K., Novak, S., Butler, E., & Karney, B. R.  (2011) Marriages are More Satisfying When Wives are Thinner Than Their Husbands.  Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2, 416-424. [pdf]

Trombello, J., Schoebi, D., & Bradbury, T.N. (2011).  Relationship functioning moderates the association between depressive symptoms and life stressors. Journal of Family Psychology, 25, 58-67. [pdf]

Van Steenbergen, E. F., Kluwer, E. S., & Karney, B. R.  (2011).  Workload and the Trajectory of Marital Satisfaction in Newlyweds: Job Satisfaction, Gender, and Parental Status as Moderators. Journal of Family Psychology, 25, 345-355.

Lavner, J. A., & Bradbury, T. N. (2010). Patterns of change in marital satisfaction over the newlywed years. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 1171-1187. DOI:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00757.x [pdf]

Karney, B. R., Hops, H., Redding, C. A., Reis, H. T., Rothman, A. J., & Simpson, J. A.  (2010). A Framework for Incorporating Dyads in Models of HIV-Prevention.  AIDS and Behavior, 14, 189-203. [pdf]

Karney, B. R. (2010).  A science of healthy relationships is not a healthy relationship science. Journal of Family Theory and Review, 2, 42-46. [pdf]

Karney, B. R. & Gauer, B. (2010).  Cognitive complexity and marital interaction in newlyweds. Personal Relationships, 17, 181-200. [pdf]

Sullivan, K. T., Pasch, L. A., Johnson, M. D., & Bradbury, T. N. (2010). Social support, problem solving, and the longitudinal course of newlywed marriage. Journal of personality and social psychology98(4), 631. [pdf]

Campos, B., Graesch, A.P., Repetti, R.L., Bradbury, T.N., & Ochs, E. (2009). Opportunity for interaction: A naturalistic observation study of dual-earner families after work and school. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 798-807.

Lawrence, E.L., Rothman, A., Cobb, R.J., & Bradbury, T.N. (2009). Changes in marital satisfaction across the transition to parenthood: Three eras of research. In M. Schulz, M.K. Pruett, P. Kerig, & R.D. Parke (Eds.) Strengthening couple relationships for optimal child development: Lessons from research and intervention (pp. 97-114). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Cohan, C.L., & Bradbury, T.N. (2009).  Longitudinal studies of marital satisfaction and dissolution. In H.T. Reis & S. Sprecher (Eds.), Encyclopedia of human relationships (pp. 1000-1004).  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Bodenmann, G., Bradbury, T.N., & Pihet, S. (2009).  Relative contributions of treatment-related changes in communication skills and dyadic coping skills to the longitudinal course of marriage in the framework of marital distress prevention. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 50, 1-21. [pdf]

Neff, L. A. & Karney, B. R. (2009).  Stress and reactivity to daily relationship experiences: How stress hinders adaptive processes in marriage. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 435-450. [pdf]

Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (2005). Contextual influences on marriage: Implications for policy and intervention. Current directions in psychological science14(4), 171-174. [pdf]

Johnson, M. D., Cohan, C. L., Davila, J., Lawrence, E., Rogge, R. D., Karney, B. R., … & Bradbury, T. N. (2005). Problem-solving skills and affective expressions as predictors of change in marital satisfaction. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology73(1), 15. [pdf]

Bradbury, T.N. and Karney, B.R. (2004), Understanding and altering the longitudinal course of marriage. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66: 862-879. [pdf]

Story, L. B., Karney, B. R., Lawrence, E., & Bradbury, T. N. (2004). Interpersonal mediators in the intergenerational transmission of marital dysfunction. Journal of family psychology18(3), 519. [pdf]

Davila, J., & Bradbury, T. N. (2001). Attachment insecurity and the distinction between unhappy spouses who do and do not divorce. Journal of family psychology15(3), 371. [pdf]

Davila, J., Bradbury, T. N., Cohan, C. L., & Tochluk, S. (1997). Marital functioning and depressive symptoms: Evidence for a stress generation model. Journal of personality and social psychology73(4), 849. [pdf]

Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (1997). Neuroticism, marital interaction, and the trajectory of marital satisfaction. Journal of personality and social psychology72(5), 1075. [pdf]